Definition of the control model and perturbed models

Description of the physical parameterizations configurations used in the models

The control model

This unperturbed model is initialised with the average of the 192 analyses produced by the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF, see Houtekamer et al. 2014).

model number: 0

  • Parameter for Gravity Wave Drag = 8.0e-6 m-1 (McFarlane, 1987)
  • Sundqvist et al. (1989) type of condensation (consun)
  • Kain & Fritsch (1993) convective scheme
  • Shallow convection simulated (conres & ktrsnt_mg)
  • Bougeault & Lacarràre (1989) mixing length formulation
  • Turbulent vertical diffusion parameter (Beta) = 1.0
  • Parameter of the orographic blocking (Cd) = 1.0

These are the same schemes used by the model of the global deterministic prediction system (GDPS).

The 20 perturbed GEM models

Every perturbed model is initialised with a different analysis generated by the EnKF (see Houtekamer et al. 2014). All perturbed models use a energy back-scattering scheme as well as a stochastic perturbations of the physical tendencies scheme (see description in Charron et al. 2010). The random numbers used in these two stochastic schemes are different for every member and every issue time (unique seeds are used).

model number: 1

  • Parameter for Gravity Wave Drag = 1.2e-5 m-1 , strong (McFarlane, 1987)
  • Sundqvist et al. (1989) type of condensation (consun)
  • Kain & Fritsch (1993) convective scheme
  • Shallow convection simulated (conres & ktrsnt_mg)
  • Blackadar (1962) mixing length formulation
  • Turbulent vertical diffusion parameter (Beta) = 1.0
  • Parameter of the orographic blocking (Cd) = 1.5

model number: 2

  • Parameter for Gravity Wave Drag = 1.2e-5 m-1, strong (McFarlane, 1987)
  • Sundqvist et al. (1989) type of condensation (newsund)
  • Kuo-type convective scheme (oldkuo, Geleyn, 1985)
  • Shallow convection simulated (conres)
  • Blackadar (1962) mixing length formulation
  • Turbulent vertical diffusion parameter (Beta) = 1.0
  • Parameter of the orographic blocking (Cd) = 0.5

model number: 3

  • Parameter for Gravity Wave Drag = 4.0e-6 m-1, weak (McFarlane, 1987)
  • Sundqvist et al. (1989) type of condensation (consun)
  • Kain & Fritsch (1993) convective scheme
  • Shallow convection simulated (conres & ktrsnt_mg)
  • Bougeault & Lacarrère (1989) mixing length formulation
  • Turbulent vertical diffusion parameter (Beta) = 0.85
  • Parameter of the orographic blocking (Cd) = 0.5

model number: 4

  • Parameter for Gravity Wave Drag = 4.0e-6 m-1 , weak (McFarlane, 1987)
  • Sundqvist et al. (1989) type of condensation (newsund)
  • Kuo-type convective scheme (oldkuo, Geleyn, 1985)
  • Shallow convection simulated (conres)
  • Bougeault & Lacarrère (1989) mixing length formulation
  • Turbulent vertical diffusion parameter (Beta) = 0.85
  • Parameter of the orographic blocking (Cd) = 0.5

model number: 5

  • Parameter for Gravity Wave Drag = 4.0e-6 m-1 , weak (McFarlane, 1987)
  • Sundqvist et al. (1989) type of condensation (consun)
  • Kain & Fritsch (1993) convective scheme
  • Shallow convection simulated (conres & ktrsnt_mg)
  • Blackadar (1962) mixing length formulation
  • Turbulent vertical diffusion parameter (Beta) = 1.0
  • Parameter of the orographic blocking (Cd) = 1.5

model number: 6

  • Parameter for Gravity Wave Drag = 4.0e-6 m-1 , weak (McFarlane, 1987)
  • Sundqvist et al. (1989) type of condensation (newsund)
  • Kuo-type convective scheme (oldkuo, Geleyn, 1985)
  • Shallow convection simulated (conres)
  • Blackadar (1962) mixing length formulation
  • Turbulent vertical diffusion parameter (Beta) = 1.0
  • Parameter of the orographic blocking (Cd) = 0.5

model number: 7

  • Parameter for Gravity Wave Drag = 4.0e-6 m-1, weak (McFarlane, 1987)
  • Sundqvist et al. (1989) type of condensation (consun)
  • Kain & Fritsch (1993) convective scheme
  • Shallow convection simulated (conres & ktrsnt_mg)
  • Bougeault & Lacarrère (1989) mixing length formulation
  • Turbulent vertical diffusion parameter (Beta) = 1.0
  • Parameter of the orographic blocking (Cd) = 1.5

model number: 8

  • Parameter for Gravity Wave Drag = 4.0e-6 m-1, weak (McFarlane, 1987)
  • Sundqvist et al. (1989) type of condensation (newsund)
  • Kuo-type convective scheme (oldkuo, Geleyn, 1985)
  • Shallow convection simulated (conres)
  • Bougeault & Lacarrère (1989) mixing length formulation
  • Turbulent vertical diffusion parameter (Beta) = 1.0
  • Parameter of the orographic blocking (Cd) = 0.5

model number: 9

  • Parameter for Gravity Wave Drag = 1.2e-5 m-1, strong (McFarlane, 1987)
  • Sundqvist et al. (1989) type of condensation (consun)
  • Kain & Fritsch (1993) convective scheme
  • Shallow convection simulated (conres & ktrsnt_mg)
  • Bougeault & Lacarrère (1989) mixing length formulation
  • Turbulent vertical diffusion parameter (Beta) = 1.0
  • Parameter of the orographic blocking (Cd) = 1.5

model number: 10

  • Parameter for Gravity Wave Drag = 1.2e-5 m-1, strong (McFarlane, 1987)
  • Sundqvist et al. (1989) type of condensation (newsund)
  • Kuo-type convective scheme (oldkuo, Geleyn, 1985)
  • Shallow convection simulated (conres)
  • Bougeault & Lacarrère (1989) mixing length formulation
  • Turbulent vertical diffusion parameter (Beta) = 1.0
  • Parameter of the orographic blocking (Cd) = 0.5

model number: 11

  • Parameter for Gravity Wave Drag = 1.2e-5 m-1, strong (McFarlane, 1987)
  • Sundqvist et al. (1989) type of condensation (consun)
  • Kain & Fritsch (1993) convective scheme
  • Shallow convection simulated (conres & ktrsnt_mg)
  • Bougeault & Lacarrère (1989) mixing length formulation
  • Turbulent vertical diffusion parameter (Beta) = 0.85
  • Parameter of the orographic blocking (Cd) = 1.5

model number: 12

  • Parameter for Gravity Wave Drag = 1.2e-5 m-1, strong (McFarlane, 1987)
  • Sundqvist et al. (1989) type of condensation (newsund)
  • Kuo-type convective scheme (oldkuo, Geleyn, 1985)
  • Shallow convection simulated (conres)
  • Bougeault & Lacarrère (1989) mixing length formulation
  • Turbulent vertical diffusion parameter (Beta) = 0.85
  • Parameter of the orographic blocking (Cd) = 0.5

model number: 13

  • Parameter for Gravity Wave Drag = 4.0e-6 m-1, weak (McFarlane, 1987)
  • Sundqvist et al. (1989) type of condensation (consun)
  • Kain & Fritsch (1993) convective scheme
  • Shallow convection simulated (conres & ktrsnt_mg)
  • Blackadar (1962) mixing length formulation
  • Turbulent vertical diffusion parameter (Beta) = 0.85
  • Parameter of the orographic blocking (Cd) = 1.5

model number: 14

  • Parameter for Gravity Wave Drag = 4.0e-6 m-1, weak (McFarlane, 1987)
  • Sundqvist et al. (1989) type of condensation (newsund)
  • Kuo-type convective scheme (oldkuo, Geleyn, 1985)
  • Shallow convection simulated (conres)
  • Blackadar (1962) mixing length formulation
  • Turbulent vertical diffusion parameter (Beta) = 0.85
  • Parameter of the orographic blocking (Cd) = 0.5

model number: 15

  • Parameter for Gravity Wave Drag = 1.2e-5 m-1, strong (McFarlane, 1987)
  • Sundqvist et al. (1989) type of condensation (consun)
  • Kain & Fritsch (1993) convective scheme
  • Shallow convection simulated (conres & ktrsnt_mg)
  • Blackadar (1962) (1962) mixing length formulation
  • Turbulent vertical diffusion parameter (Beta) = 0.85
  • Parameter of the orographic blocking (Cd) = 1.5

model number: 16

  • Parameter for Gravity Wave Drag = 1.2e-5 m-1, strong (McFarlane, 1987)
  • Sundqvist et al. (1989) type of condensation (newsund)
  • Kuo-type convective scheme (oldkuo, Geleyn, 1985)
  • Shallow convection simulated (conres)
  • Blackadar (1962) mixing length formulation
  • Turbulent vertical diffusion parameter (Beta) = 0.85
  • Parameter of the orographic blocking (Cd) = 0.5

model number: 17

  • Parameter for Gravity Wave Drag = 1.2e-5 m-1, strong (McFarlane, 1987)
  • Sundqvist et al. (1989) type of condensation (consun)
  • Kain & Fritsch (1993) convective scheme
  • Shallow convection simulated (conres & ktrsnt_mg)
  • Blackadar (1962) mixing length formulation
  • Turbulent vertical diffusion parameter (Beta) = 1.0
  • Parameter of the orographic blocking (Cd) = 0.5

model number: 18

  • Parameter for Gravity Wave Drag = 1.2e-5 m-1, strong (McFarlane, 1987)
  • Sundqvist et al. (1989) type of condensation (newsund)
  • Kuo-type convective scheme (oldkuo, Geleyn, 1985)
  • Shallow convection simulated (conres)
  • Blackadar (1962) mixing length formulation
  • Turbulent vertical diffusion parameter (Beta) = 1.0
  • Parameter of the orographic blocking (Cd) = 1.5

model number: 19

  • Parameter for Gravity Wave Drag = 4.0e-6 m-1, weak (McFarlane, 1987)
  • Sundqvist et al. (1989) type of condensation (consun)
  • Kain & Fritsch (1993) convective scheme
  • Shallow convection simulated (conres & ktrsnt_mg)
  • Bougeault & Lacarrère (1989) mixing length formulation
  • Turbulent vertical diffusion parameter (Beta) = 0.85
  • Parameter of the orographic blocking (Cd) = 1.5

model number: 20

  • Parameter for Gravity Wave Drag = 4.0e-6 m-1, weak (McFarlane, 1987)
  • Sundqvist et al. (1989) type of condensation (newsund)
  • Kuo-type convective scheme (oldkuo, Geleyn, 1985)
  • Shallow convection simulated (conres)
  • Bougeault & Lacarrère (1989) mixing length formulation
  • Turbulent vertical diffusion parameter (Beta) = 0.85
  • Parameter of the orographic blocking (Cd) = 0.5

References

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